Activity Report (1998) Part 2  I. Increasing Mutual Understanding and Tolerance for Diversity

Asia Research Center, Murdoch University (Australia)
Asian Capitalism

¥ 2,450,572
An international workshop focusing on post-crisis emerging forms of capitalism in Asia, organized by Murdoch University in co-operation with Yonsei University of Korea, consolidated the thoughts of some 100 participants from all over Asia. Asian scholars' arguments that state institutions' decisions about market-facilitating mechanisms have been taken not in isolation from sociopolitical contexts have come forward more directly to the policy debate, particularly on aid administration, of the IMF and World Bank. The conference compiled a book entitled "From Miracle to Meltdown: the End of Asian Capitalism?" that was published by Routledge (London). The Asia Center's grant supported the participation of Asian scholars in the conference.


Institute of Khmer Culture /APSARA (Cambodia)
Establishment of "Udaya": Journal of Khmer Studies

¥ 450,859
The Asia Center's grant was used by the Institute to initiate "Udaya,"a journal of Khmer studies to deepen the understanding of Khmer culture in Cambodia and the international community, to promote discourses and collaboration among researchers, and to provide an impetus and venue for research. This year, the grant was used to establish contacts and an advisory board, and to collate and edit articles for the first two issues of the journal in promotion of a secure basis for more sustainable support. Alongside, an internet web-site in Khmer, French and English was to be established.


Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd) (Hong Kong, China)
Asian Consortium for Citizenship Education in Schools (ACCES)

¥ 834,400
Aiming for the establishment of the Center for Citizenship Education (CCE) at HKIEd which is to provide services for curriculum and professional development in citizenship education in the Asia-Pacific, HKIEd organized a workshop "Towards Excellence in Citizenship Education:Perspectives from the Asia-Pacific Region." The first session focused on civic, values, and environment education and the second focused on more functional issues: research, curriculum and staff development, and networking. Both local and regional academics, educators, and policy makers contributed their insights to strengthen HKIEd's collaborative research capacities and broadened the perspectives in the development of citizenship education. In the final plenary session of the workshop, concrete steps were put forward in regards to holding the second meeting in Bangkok on the research about the concept of Multi-dimensional Citizenship.


Pipal Tree (India)
Culture, Conflict Resolution and Sustainable Development

¥ 774,200
Pipal Tree, an India-based NGO which concerns itself with the cultural dimensions of social transformation, held a three-day Pipal Tree workshop entitled "Strategies for Inter Religious Conflict Resolution-An Exploratory Workshop" concerning about disturbing trends in recent years towards the polarization of religious issues in India. Participants from different walks of life and religious traditions from various parts of India and Pakistan engaged seriously and deeply with several issues arising from the growing tension between people of different faiths, communities, ethnicity and regions in India. They spoke from their experiences and also analyzed the factors behind today's alarming increase in fundamentalist violence. With mutual respect and the sense of openness to each other, this workshop was a positive experience characterized by a rich sharing of experiences, opinions and insights.


KALAM, Journal of Culture (Indonesia)
KALAM Serial Discussion 1998-1999

¥ 3,560,004
With help from a grant from the Asia Center, KALAM produced a series of discussions based on the aims of examining important current themes within Indonesian Art, intellectual and cultural life. This then enabled members of academia, the mass media and the general public to present research results so as to give them a new outlook from local and foreign thinkers and finally to stimulate further discussions. Within this framework, four main themes were touched upon: Religion: Between Creation and Censorship; Art and (Capital) ism; Body, Performance and Lifestyle; and Performing Art and Changing Traditions. From these discussions and writings that were presented by the participants four editions of the journal KALAM were produced.


Directorate-General for Culture, Department of Education and Culture, Indonesia (Indonesia)
15th Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia

¥ 1,011,632
The Directorate-General for Culture in cooperation with University of Indonesia, Gadjamada University and Indonesian Institute of Sciences used the support of the Asia Center to host the 15th conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia. About 200 historians from Asia, America, Europe, and Scandinavia debated more than 80 papers covering a broad range of issues including "The Sea and Asian History," "Women in Asian History" and "Religion and Pluralism." Two special sessions by prominent scholars on "Network of Asian Studies" and "Nation Formation in Southeast Asia" were also hosted and opportunities were provided for the Association to review its achievements and to plan its future tasks.


Japan Educational Administration Society (Japan)
Social Changes in Asia: Economic Crisis and Educational Policy

¥ 1,011,000
The Japan Educational Administration Society and its Korean counterpart organized a symposium to discuss educational policy and reform in Asian countries. Participants from Japan and Korea, as well as invitees from China, Thailand and Malaysia, evaluated traditional social norms and values that have been greatly influenced by the recent Asian crisis and other social changes. Ultimately, the participants also used the event to exchange perspectives regarding a better possible balance between the principles of society and that of individuals.


Committee for Research on Pacific Asia (Japan)
Formation of New Order in the Asia-Pacific Region: Current Status, Future and Historical Experiences

¥ 2,070,000
This was the last phase of a collaborative research project to examine the dynamics of diplomatic and military strategies of ASEAN and Korea in view of future developments in relations with China, Japan and the U.S.A. Provisional papers written during the two year research period were discussed with Asian Societies in Australia and Boston before finally being presented in a concluding workshop that was held in Tokyo on the 21-22 March 1999. In this workshop, the history of regional order in the Asia-Pacific was reviewed and issues of globalization in security, economics and the environment in the region were discussed. The final result of the three-year project appeared in "The Journal Pacific Asia" in Japanese and English and will be published in a book form.


International Institute of Language and Culture Studies, Ritsumeikan University (Japan)
The 21st Century World and Multilingualism / Multiculturalism-Perspective from the Periphery

¥ 1,438,900
Striving to develop scenarios of future society after the demise of nation-state modernity and the world's uncertainty marked by greater divergence, polarization, violence and struggles against domination, this Kyoto-based Institute organized an international symposium. Rather than approaching from the "world center," the symposium examined the future from the peripheral viewpoints of multilingualism and multiculturalism. Three main themes were considered: "The Creole Nature of 1920s Culture," "Diverse Voices of Asia: Intersecting Representation and Strategies" and "Towards Pluralist Image of History: decolonizing our Imagi-Nation." Prior to the symposium, Asian films from Korea, the Philippines and Vietnam were featured to introduce the diverse voices of the region.


Asia Pacific Forum (Japan)
Culture of Peace Forum

¥ 806,700
The UN General Assembly's declaration of the year 2000 as the year of "Culture of Peace" posed challenges to the international community to establish and promote lasting peace in the world at the turn of millennium. With this end in mind, the Asia-Pacific Forum held a symposium participated in by government officials, journalists, scholars and staff of the Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan. The aim of the symposium was to operationalize the concept of "culture of peace,"to set action plans, and to find ways for Asian countries to contribute to the global movement. Discussions proceeded with great emphasis on linking peace and development and finding avenues towards the culture of peace through education, communication, economics and social activities.


Chiba University (Japan)
Searching for the Paradigm of Pluralism, III: Cultural and Social Pluralism and Coexistence in South and Southeast Asia

¥ 820,000
This is the third round of the conference to study the paradigm of Pluralism in Asia. Based on the outcome of past discussions on "Reborn of Okinawa" and "Vision for Japan's Reform," this year's conference considered the issues of globalism and localism in South and Southeast Asia with a focus on multi-ethnicity, multiculturalism and coexistence in the region. Scholars attending from India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the U.S.A. exchanged their views in terms of politics, economics, ethnicity, culture, society, languages and international cooperation.


Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University (Japan)
Structure and Movement of Japan-Southeast Asia Relations after the World War II

¥ 2,733,000
This multi-year research project examined the structure and dynamic relations of Japan and Southeast Asia in the post-War period through 1990. In this the second phase of the project the research covered Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Brunei. The researchers produced a chronological table of Japan-Southeast Asian history for the last 50 years; built a theoretical framework to understand the relations between Japan and the above-mentioned countries from a historical point of view; gathered and consulted primary source documents; and conducted interviews in the four countries. The research was collaboratively carried out with research counterparts in each of the countries. At the end of its second year now, an international symposium is being planned to allow for exchange of research and ideas associated with this project.


Japan Association for International Education (Japan)
Asia-Pacific Conference on International Education

¥ 2,641,869
With the rapid progress of globalization, education for international understanding has become more important than ever in the Asia-Pacific region. With this as a backdrop, the Association organized a conference to envision the concept of education for international understanding in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st century. Gathering from eight countries in the region, participants exchanged their views on the role of education, issues and polices of education for international understanding, problems in curriculum development, and training for teachers. The outcome of the conference was edited in both Japanese and English.


Japan Association for Cultural Exchange (Japan)
Seminar on Global Education for Teachers'98: Multicultural Understanding and Coexistence

¥ 1,640,000
To create a new generation with an international outlook and communicative ability, it is indispensable at this time of continued globalization to practice a system of international understanding in education. In this seminar, eight high school teachers who are using the teaching strategy of global education in Japan, South Korea and the U.S.A. demonstrated their own teaching practices and discussed the contents of global education and its learning methods under the broad theme of "Multicultural Understanding and Coexistence."More than a hundred teachers and international exchange organizations participated in the panel discussion to exchange their views. The conference report was produced in Japanese, Korean and English.


Center for Area Studies (CAS), Keio University (Japan)
General Survey of China's Cultural Revolution

¥ 1,000,000
A large amount of first -hand documents and classified information about the Cultural Revolution had been kept under neglected conditions and it became an urgent issue to reproduce and safeguard these materials for further research. The grantee used the Asia Center's grant funds to make photocopies of almost 30,000 pages of the original documents and bound them into 85 volumes. Based on these materials, the research team, consisting of scholars from China, Japan and the U.S.A., will conduct an objective and diversified study on this historically significant period in China's history. One set of the materials was donated to the Asia Center Library.


Research Group for the Modern Indonesian Society (Japan)
Role of Village Information for Rural Development in Java

¥ 1,841,000
Understanding that the quality and quantity of information flowing into villages plays a key role in rural development in Indonesia, a Japan-Indonesia joint team conducted research to look into the possibilities of developing a community-based information network and a system of sustainable development in Java. The team assessed the rural development policy, information control and traditional top-down flow of information under the Suharto administration, and the community's effort against the move towards a democratic society. Based on that, they conducted a survey in urban and rural areas to compare the community's reaction to social changes, i.e. the economic crisis and replacement of the President. The outcome of the research will reflect the local community's efforts to advance a democratic movement for sustainable and voluntary development in the region.


Traces East Asia Committee (Japan)
Search for the Traces of "Others" in "Ourselves"-Conditions and Practices of Intellectual Exchange in East Asia

¥ 2,477,000
Traces is a cultural theory magazine that is published in many different languages. It acts as a mediator of discussion among people (intellectuals) who speak different languages from all corners of the world. By translating information and discussions into many languages, Traces allows the scholars to collectively debate about questions of the existing intellectual exchange system in the world but also it aims at searching for new ways of intellectual discussion and conversation. The Asia Center is committed to creating a new place of intellectual production and exchange in Asia by having a close relationship with Traces. This year, under such titles as "The Position of the West in Intellectual Production and Distribution in East Asia," they provided new information and debate by showing that there is an unequal system of distribution of intellectual production. The gathering gave scholars from China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, the U.S.A. and Canada a chance to interact.


China and Japan as an Intellectual Community (Japan)
Symposium: "China-Japan as an Intellectual Community"

¥ 2,094,000
Based on the outcome of the "International Cultural Forum 97: East Asian Thought "which was supported by the Asia Center, the forum "China and Japan as an Intellectual Community" was held to develop a network among intellectuals in China and Japan. The first session gathered chief editors and writers of the main academic journals to discuss the status of publications, editorial policy and issues of concern in each country. The second session, joined by scholars from Taiwan and Hong Kong, dealt with the theme "The Modern Period and Nationalism." The project helped participants from China and Japan to recognize each other as a dialogue partner beyond merely a counterpart to exchange academic knowledge and information.


Japan Association for the Study of Japanese-China Relations (Japan)
Prospects for Development in Asia in Perspectives of Japan-China Relations

¥ 6,000,000
The Forum for the Study of Japan-China Program, developed by the Association, aim's to promote Japanese-Chinese mutual understanding towards better initiatives to advance and stabilize society and the economy in Asia. Based on a feasibility study conducted in 1997, scholars from both countries and the U.S.A. exchanged their views and agreed on a general orientation and action plan. Their joint research will cover: economic, financial and insurance reforms in China; exchange of scientific technology and its dissemination and education for future generations; and the role of mass communication in China and Japan. The project intends to continue Japan-China dialogue to improve bilateral communication as well as to form citizen-level exchanges and cooperation among China, Japan and the U.S.A.


Association of Malaysian Archaeologists (Malaysia)
16th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (IPPA)

¥ 2,208,323
The Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, an international scholarly association of archaeologists and prehistorians held their quadrennial meeting hosted by the Association of Malaysian Archaeologists, in Melaka, in July 1998. Research results of scholars from South, East and Southeast Asia, as well as from outside the region (Europe, North America, Australasia) were presented in 20 separate panels on a wide range of topics across the totality of Indo-Pacific prehistory. With special consideration given to young scholars, new and important discussion (e.g., origins of humanity in Asia, origins of agriculture, origins of states and complex societies) was presented at the conference. The Asia Center's funds were used to bring speakers from Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Myanmar to present their research at the meeting.


Faculty of Language Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)
The Role of Language in a Border-less World: Hearkening to the Voices of Asia (VOICE ASIA'98)

¥ 912,414
As nations of the world and regions are bracing for what is becoming an increasingly border-less world, realization is dawning that language is critical in facilitating border-less communication. Yet with this it also sets one's borders by maintaining identity and embodying values and then shows that an education system plays a prominent role to promote this balance. In this context, the School brought together 125 local and international scholars, writers and teachers at the conference to discuss potential and actual problems in the use of language. In particularly, English to explore more attuned language teaching technology and methodology, and to seek the balance between local vernacular as identity and English as a global necessity. Specific themes discussed in this conference among others included "Language and Identity," "Language and Gender," and "Language and Power."


Malaysia Academic Movement (MOVE) (Malaysia)
An International Conference on Asian Values

¥ 2,359,617
Asian values as a phenomena has been widely debated and somehow over used to characterize Southeast Asian economic progress and stagnation. The Kuala Lumpur-based MOVE used the Asia Center's grant to organize a two-day international conference to facilitate about 125 local and international scholars sharing their views, critically examining their perspectives, and attempting to arrive at common understanding of what Asian values are all about. During discussions, participants from Japan, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia debated Asian values in relation to economics and politics, civil society, culture and ideology for example. The Proceedings of this conference will be published in a book form.


Philippine Social Science Council (Philippines)
Pre-Congress on the "Theme The Social Sciences and Public Policy and Practice" for the 4th National Social Science Congress (NSSC IV)

¥ 2,136,558
In connection with the 4th National Social Science Congress of the Philippines, the PSSC held a "Pre-Congress" meeting on the theme "The Social Sciences and Public Policy Practice." The meeting featured six sessions on topics with a bearing on the use of social science knowledge and expertise in the crafting of national development policies and programs. Topics which were discussed included economic policy and social sciences; population, resources, environment and social sciences; social science discourses in Philippine politics and governance; human development and policy and the social sciences; language, communication and education policy and the social sciences; science and technology policy and the social sciences. Foreign-based scholars from Australia, Japan, Hawaii, Singapore, Thailand and Sri Lanka attended. The proceeding of the pre-Congresses will be published as a book.


East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
Hong Kong in China: A Year Later

¥ 2,241,783
The conference served the objective of providing a forum for academic exchange on the problems and challenges facing Hong Kong a year after its return to China. 50 scholars from universities in Hong Kong, Japan and Southeast Asian countries exchanged their views so as to have a better idea of Hong Kong's future developments which in turn could impinge on developments in Singapore and the ASEAN region. Discussions covered the area of political, economic and social changes, legal developments, Hong Kong and the region, and Hong Kong and China. A book is being published out of the conference papers submitted.


Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (Singapore)
The Role of Cultures and Institutions in Southeast Asian Economic Development

¥ 960,752
The Singapore-based Institute used the Asia Center's grant to organize a two-day workshop that ultimately sought to empirically contextualize the abstract and rethink the concept of "Asian Values" and to broaden the discourses regarding the Southeast Asian growth phenomenon beyond dominating economic analyses. Thirteen researchers from five countries were invited to Singapore to present discussion papers that looked into the intersection between cultural, institutional, and economic forces in terms of policies and practices in these countries in light of economic changes during the last two to three decades. Benefiting from the debates, participants returned to their countries to proceed with their studies with an additional agenda to examine the social dimensions of the current crises, ethnicity issues, and the dynamics of civil society. The Institute plans to reconvene the participants, to a consolidating conference scheduled to be held in the future.


Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
Editorial Meetings for Movements: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies

¥ 2,274,400
The project "Movements: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies" is a conference-cum-journal project to provide a forum for scholars working in cultural studies in Asia. The main aim of the project is to allow scholars to respond to the re-centering of cultural studies outside the Anglo-American axis and to participate in cultural politics at a local level yet through an international agenda. They then would be able to produce reports and analysis from a critical global perspective.
Aiming for the first edition of "Inter-Asia Cultural Studies" to be published in April 2000, the grantee used the Asia Center's grant to hold editorial meetings in Manila and Seoul. As a result, the editorial team finalized a contract with their publisher, Routledge (London) as well as plans for the first year of publication of three issues and the contents of the inaugural issue under the title "Problematizing 'Asia'."

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