Activity Report (1998) Part 2   II. Addressing Common Problems Requiring International

University of Queensland (Australia)
Asia's Emerging Regional Order: Reconciling "Traditional" and "Human" Security

¥ 2,409,349
The Asia Center's grant covered portions of the cost of the project to bring regional experts and scholars to address how the 'human security' concept applies to various Asia-Pacific and international developments. A two-phase workshop was organized to explore one alternative paradigm which has captured the attention of a growing number of international relations specialists over the past decade: the idea that the needs and aspirations of individual human beings should be assigned priority in examining new approaches for implementing international peace and stability. A book was published out of the conference papers by United Nations University press (Tokyo) entitled "Asia's Emerging Regional Order: Reconciling Traditional and Human Security."

Asia-Australia Institute, University of New South Wales (Australia)
The 1998 Gwinganna Forum: The East Asian Think-tank and Research Institute Network: 1998 Gwinganna Forum Project

¥ 1,128,000
The Gwinganna Forum was established by the Asia-Australia Institute, in partnership with the Foundation for International and Strategic Studies, Beijing and the Institute for International Relations at Beijing University, in 1995 to deal with the issues of power inequalities and power relations, regionalism and regional order in East Asia. The Asia Center grant supported the forum's implementation of a new strategic framework in the region to consolidate the establishment of a Network of think-tanks and research institutes. It also enabled the group to develop and implement a strategic program of regional debate, research and policy collaboration and policy advocacy on regionalism in East Asia..

Enterprise Association of Hainan Province, China (China)
Enterprise Development & Environment Protection Seminar

¥ 1,572,325
The Island of Hainan served as the perfect backdrop for the occasion of the gathering of participants of varied backgrounds from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and the U.S.A for a seminar on Enterprise Development. At this seminar, they had the opportunity to discuss and develop awareness of the need for entrepreneurs to be concerned with environmental protection while seeking economic development success. Topics which were discussed at the symposium included how to develop awareness of protection while achieving economic progress, how to reduce waste materials which are harmful to the natural environment and how to encourage enterprises to develop products which are ecologically sound. The symposium provided the opportunity to undertake some preliminary research then allowing the participants to debate the findings. The final product was put into book form.

Lianing Academy of Social Sciences (China)
Sustainable and Harmonious Development of Environment and Society in Northeast Asia

¥ 1,720,500
With the aim of promoting academic exchanges for sustainable and harmonious development of the environment and society in the Northeast Asia toward the 21st century, the Lianing Academy of Social Sciences organized an international seminar. This seminar was used to discuss international cooperation for sustainable development in the region; the establishment and enactment of law; the protection of the environment; and sustainable use of natural resources. The conference gathered around 70 biologists, economists, philosophers, sociologists and government officials to strengthen interdisciplinary cooperation.

People's Government of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture (China)
International Exchange Conference on Tumen River Area and Enterprises Management

¥ 680,688
China's Tumen River Area comprises the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and is one of the fastest growing economic regions in East China. To further develop the area, the modernization of Russia and North Korea is indispensable. With this as a backdrop, the People's Government of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture organized an international conference to introduce their experiences of bringing in foreign enterprise management and cultures. At the conference, representatives from some Japanese enterprises introduced their corporate culture and entrepreneurial spirit, and businessmen and economists from China, Japan, South and North Korea and Russia exchanged their views.

Department of Political Science, Nankai University (China)
International Conference on Regional Cooperation in Security and Economic Relations in the Asia Pacific

¥ 1,900,173
This Beijing-based school collaborated with its American counterpart to organize a two-day international conference in Beijing entitled "Regional Cooperation in Security and Economic Relations in the Asia Pacific." Seven scholars from Japan, Singapore, Korea, Australia, and the U.S.A, joined 13 Chinese counterparts to present studies around the historical perspective of Asia Pacific regionalism, transnational economic investment, regional security cooperation, and international regimes. Additionally, the conference was also a venue for discussion regarding teaching content and methods on regionalism courses. The outcome of the conference will be published as a textbook for Chinese University students. The Asia Center's grant was used to defray the cost of logistical requirements for the conference.

Lingnan College Zhongshan University (China)
Hong Kong: Its Relationship with Japan

¥ 1,656,200
After the return of Hong Kong to China, the importance of South China and its relationship with neighboring countries including Japan are becoming more important. Zhongshan University thought that it was important to allow both Japanese and Chinese scholars, government officials and businessmen to analyze and consider this relationship by comparing the time before and after the return of Hong Kong. It is with this as a backdrop that an international symposium was held where such issues were discussed as: the role of Japan after the return of Hong Kong; the possibility of the establishment of economic cooperation; crisis management between China and Japan to deal with economic difficulties such as the Asian Currency Crisis; and future cultural exchanges. All papers presented at the symposium will be published in Chinese intellectual magazines.

Research Center for Contemporary China (RCCC), Beijing University (China)
Environmental Politics in a High Growth State: Elite Awareness and Generation Change in China

¥ 1,767,600
This is the second phase of a project to determine the nature of elite's concerns about environmental quality, and the extent to which they would be willing to bear the cost for environment protection. This year, three additional smaller cities were selected to complement the already existed six sample cities, i.e. Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang and Xian. A total of 300 respondents were randomly selected among the sample cities' government officials, business people, and professionals in the fields of science, technology, education, health, culture, etc. The project will continue with data collection in Beijing, and eventually, data analysis and the production of their final report.

Japan Center for International Exchange (JCIE) (Japan)
An Intellectual Dialogue on Building Asia's Tomorrow-The Asian Crisis: Meeting the Challenges to Human Security

¥ 1,181,000
This is a long-term dialogue project to strengthen the intellectual interaction among East Asian countries by mobilizing the diverse intellectual assets and resourcefulness of each country for the peace and prosperity of the Asian region. JCIE and the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore jointly organized a two-day conference of leading intellectuals from ASEAN, China, Japan, Korea and observers from the Asia Pacific and Europe to discuss "human security" challenges stemming from the Asian financial crisis. In the main frame of "The Asian Crisis:Meeting the Challenges to Human Security," participants discussed the current challenges,strategies for the region's revival, and the role of intellectual exchange, governments,international organizations and civil society. The result of the conference has been published as well as been made open to public on the grantee's web site.

Japan NGO Network on Indonesia (JANNI) (Japan)
Customary Forest Management in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

¥ 3,742,195
This is the second phase of the Asia Center-supported project to recommend a more appropriate forest policy to preserve and utilize forest resources in cooperation with communities of indigenous people. This year, results of field research conducted in the previous year were presented along with other studies in a workshop. Almost 60 representatives of indigenous communities from Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Molucca islands as well as NGOs, experts in forest management and government officials debated the research findings and the recent development of customary forest management in the region. Findings and recommendations from the workshop were disseminated to indigenous people, researchers, and concerned parties in a two volume publication on forest and indigenous communities: "Rediscovering the History of Dayak Indigenous Community" and "Dayak Indigenous Wisdom and the Threats to its Sustainability."

Research Institute for Peace and Security (Japan)
Joint Study on "The Maritime Security in the Western Pacific"

¥ 3,162,000
This Japanese Institute co-operated with the Korean Institute for Defense Analysis to materialize this research project on the issue of maritime security in the Western Pacific. As a culmination of the research an international symposium was organized in Seoul in February 1999. Experts on Asian security issues from Japan, Korea, China, Russia and the U.S.A. exchanged ideas under two themes: "Security in Northeast Asia and the Current Status of Bilateral Security" and "The Possibility of Multilateral Security in the Northeast Asia." Aside from achieving strengthened ties among participants, the research also generated recommendations to governments in proceedings that were made available in both Japanese and Korean.

Policy Study Group (Japan)
Prospects for International Situation after the Unification of the Korean Peninsula

¥ 3,084,000
This was the second phase of a joint project to promote US-Japan-Korea trilateral intellectual dialogue to strengthen ties for stability and peace in the Asia-Pacific region especially given the scenario of possible Korean unification on the Peninsula. This year, the Asia Center supported the holding of the 16th Korea-Japan security dialogue shuttle, or "KJ Shuttle," which provided an opportunity for scholars and security specialists of the two countries to exchange views. The 8th KJ Shuttle particularly drew keen public attention due to its coincidence with the holding of "Simulation for Korea-Japan Maritime Cooperation" following the tension arising from the South Korean Navy's sinking of a North Korean submarine in December 1998.

Japan's Organizing Committee for Japan-China Cooperative Symposium on Environmental Education
Japan-China Cooperative Symposium on Environmental Education

¥ 1,320,000
Aiming to promote an environmental education system under the framework of China-Japan cooperation, specialists and educators from the private sector from the two countries participated in the Beijing International Symposium on Environmental Education. To familiarize themselves with the present state of the issue prior to the symposium, participants visited environmental facilities in the region and attended workshops discussing various issues included:"Environmental Issues and Education in China," "Practice of Participation-based,Outdoor Environmental Education in Japan" and "Prospects of Japan-China Cooperation."After which they proceeded with a training workshop to develop human resources and teaching materials.

Asian Bioethics Association (ABA) (Japan)
4th World Congress of Bioethics-International Association of Bioethics (IAB4) in conjunction with the Asian Bioethics Association

¥ 3,123,350
Encouraged by the success of the 1997 "Asian Bioethics Conference," this year the Association organized another conference that continued discussion on the importance of bioethics in the Asia-Pacific region contextualized in a more global perspective. 250 specialists from more Asian countries than last year, met at the conference to further discuss the issues of medical genetics, terminal care, characteristics of Asian bioethics, brain death and organ transplant, AIDs and bioethics and the North-South gap in Asia as well as many other topics. A Tokyo Communique was adopted at the end of the conference and its proceedings published in English.

Sejong Institute (Korea)
Endeavor for Peace and Stability in East Asia: North Korea and its International Issues

¥ 2,974,650
Sejong Institute carried out a collaborative research project with the National Institute for Defense Studies (Japan) and the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations to debate issues of interest of the three countries. Also it allowed them to debate different diplomatic policies, and possible influences on regional peace in relation with North Korea. The ultimate aim of the project was to reach recommendations for peace and stability in East Asia. The research was comprised of three main components: "North Korea and its Outstrikes after the Cold War," "Development and Diplomatic Issues," and "Peace and Stability in East Asia," which were more openly debated after 1990. The outcomes of the research will be published in both English and Korean.

Society for Conservation and Protection of the Environment (SCOPE) (Pakistan)
Establishment of a Coalition to Combat Desertification in Asia (CCDA)

¥ 3,948,350
SCOPE, a regional outfit of an international NGO network concerning the implementation of the UN Convention on Combating Desertification, further operationalized this international imperative by initiating preliminary steps towards building a coalition of concerned NGOs in Asia and Africa. In the conference that was held in Islamabad, Pakistan, representatives of the UN, research institutes and NGOs from more than ten countries resolved to accomplish their commitments-crystallized through program action and a declaration focusing on population and poverty-within two years. These were to be accomplished through the preparation of individual country studies, the designation of SCOPE as the connecting hub for continuing consolidation of collaboration among members, and the launching of an information network.

U.P. Planning and Development Research Foundation, Inc. (UP PLANADES) (Philippines)
A Study of Patterns of Community Formation among Coastal Dwellers in Mindanao:Towards Formulating for Sustainable Environments

¥ 3,834,000
The Manila-based Foundation used the Asia Center's grant for research on the planning of sustainable communities, an important thrust to harmonize the culture of a changing society and the environment given the backdrop of population increase, pollution problems, and diminishing resources. Designating a coastal town in Southern Philippines, the Foundation undertook a household survey, aerial scanning, and architecture inventory in combination with participatory community-based research to arrive at policy recommendations on sustainable planning that will be forwarded to government offices, NGOs, and local community leaders. Additionally, the result of this research will be published in academic publications and international journals.

Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) (Philippines)
Exemplary Practices on Environment and Sustainable Development: A Participatory Research Project

¥ 1,555,645
The aim of PRRM was to document and showcase initiatives of civil society organizations that have resulted in tangible improvements in the quality of life and the living environments of people and communities in a sustainable way. A grant from the Asia Center was used towards a regional workshop which brought together aid practitioners, research institutes, grant-making foundations and policy makers from the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and China. This allowed them to collectively discuss a more effective approach towards resolving the environmental crisis in Asia. The final result of the project to which a portion of the Asia Center's funds were used was the publication of "Pathways: In Search of Exemplary Practices on the Environment and Sustainable Development" which could be used as a guideline for policy formation and implementation.

Kasetsart University (Thailand)
International Seminar on Sustainable Human Resource and Community Development in Asia and the Pacific

¥ 745,154
The Asia Center's grant enabled the University to bring together about 20 speakers and more than a hundred participants from Australia, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, the U.S.A., and Vietnam to attend this seminar. Various research papers and country studies were presented focusing on concepts of transcending wisdom, community building, and spiritual development. These were complemented by a field study tour to different provinces in Thailand. The conference managed to identify the preferred features of sustainable development, major constraints towards sustainability, and the development of reliable strategies for assessing sustainable strategies. Among its most important recommendations, participants urged governments to take supporting and facilitating roles for society to attain their sustainable development.

Local Development Institute (Thailand)
Thai Community Currency Systems (TCCS)

¥ 2,082,609
This multi-year project sought to re-center the increasingly globalized economy back to the heart of the local community. Employing a combination of research, workshops, and local-based working groups, the project facilitated the community to re-evaluate the value of money, labor, production and market on their own terms rather than on terms which were imposed by global standards. Lessons from this project were disseminated in booklet form for community members, presented in international conferences, and published in an international research report. The Asia Center's grant supported the project to develop a possible alternative economy for the future.

Asian Institute of Technology, Environmental System Information Center (ENSIC) (Thailand)
Strengthening Environmental Competence on Emerging Global Environmental Issues and their Impacts of Some Selected Educational Institutions in the Mekong Sub-region

¥ 2,536,098
The Center sought the Asia Center's support to provide faculty members of Mekong sub-region universities with updated information about major environmental issues. By providing information about environmental issues such as water and natural resources, climate change, and ozone depletion, they could thus ultimately updated their competence and could strengthen their universities as centers of excellence in environmental protection in their respective countries. Nine participants from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam attended training workshops that combined classroom instructions, the preparation of country reports, and curriculum development on environmental issues. In addition to the increasing competence of environmental protection in the Mekong sub-region, valuable regional and country-specific plans and recommendations resulted from this training.

Asian Research Center for Migration (ARCM), Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)
Thai Migrant Workers in Southeast and East Asia: The Prospects of Thailand's Migration Policy in Light of the Regional Economic Recession

¥ 2,889,710
Led by the ARCM of Chulalongkorn University of Thailand, this research project was undertaken by a consortium of research institutions in Thailand itself as the country of emitting migrant workers, and four receiving countries, i.e. Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and Malaysia. The research aimed to investigate the legal and administrative frameworks, flow pattern,recruitment structure, segmentation, societal impact of migration from Thailand, and the prospect of the labor market as the economic recession rages on. Series of activities started with an international conference to synchronize perception regarding the research focus, followed by the formation of a research consortium composed of five countries' legal and social scientists, and finally the implementation of the research itself. At present, the interim result of the research has contributed to government and NGOs policy debate.

Center for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies (CRES), National University of Hanoi (Vietnam)
A Project to Encourage Younger Vietnamese Scholars on Culture and Environment in Vietnam

¥ 3,208,950
The collaborative efforts of CRES and the East-West Center of Hawaii received continuing support from the Asia Center. This year, 30 young scholars from universities, government offices, the mass media, and NGOs in Vietnam and Laos received introductory English and environmental research courses from local and international instructors in a training workshop.The workshop "The Human Dimensions of Upland Development" proceeded with field studies toward fellowships on environmental and cultural-oriented research. In between, workshops that were open to the general public were also organized to intensify interactions among young scholars and society. Manuscripts from completed research are in the process of being published in both Vietnamese and English.

International Cooperation Department & Center for Human Geography, National Center for Social Sciences and Humanities (NCSSH) (Vietnam)
Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects in Vietnam: Southeast Asian Experience

¥ 3,420,028
Experiences in both developed and developing countries demonstrate that economic development activities have not shown sufficient concern for maintaining the natural environment of its surrounding area. With this as a backdrop, a workshop was organized to look into the effects and consequences of economic development in the both industrial areas and mountainous areas of Vietnam which are populated by a variety of minority groups. Gathering participants from social science research institutes in Vietnam and throughout Asia the workshop set out to discuss and exchange views on environmental protection so as to be better prepared to cope with the problems which might arise out of Vietnam's modernization and industrialization. The conclusions of the workshop will serve as a guideline for future environmental monitoring of development projects that they do not compromise the environment for the sake of modernization.

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